Majdan

INDUSTRIJA CEMENTA U SPLITSKOJ REGIJI

Arhitektura, infrastruktura i utjecaj na kulturni krajolik

Prema kriterijima zahvaćene površine, visine i veličine građevina, rasprostranjenosti i broja zaposlenih, industrija je cementa najznačajnija u Dalmaciji. Njen utjecaj na prostor otpočinje neposredno i elementarno – iz krajolika se nepovratno oduzima laporasta sirovina. Sljedeća razina utjecaja generirana je procesima kojima se iz sirovine proizvodi i na tržište otprema cement. To je tehnička baština u svom najizvornijem obliku – tvorničke peći i mlinovi, elektrane i žičare. Tvornički sklopovi cementne industrije pomicali su granice ostvarivog u industrijskoj arhitekturi srednje Dalmacije. Infrastrukturno i tehničko umreženje u regiju postignuto je željeznicom, električnom energijom, vodovodom i pristaništima. Za zadovoljenje potreba uključenih stručnjaka i radnika, u različitim društvenim okolnostima različito, grade se stambeni, kulturni i zdravstveni kapaciteti. U konačnici, dugotrajno postojanje i veliki broj zaposlenih doveo je do toga da cementna industrija ima i aktivnu ulogu u kreiranju društvenih odnosa.

Unatoč nedvojbeno velikom utjecaju na srednjodalmatinski prostor, industrija cementa nije prepoznata na adekvatan način. Njezini početci i razvoj događali su se mimo prostornih planova. Secesijski sklopovi i poslijeratne tipske stambene zgrade u stručnoj literaturi su ignorirane. Vlastitom projektnom birou tvrtke “Dalmacijacement” ne pridaje se primjerena važnost. Nadalje, izvođačke tvrtke među svojim referencama tek usputno spominju i sagrađene tvornice cementa, a projektni biroi u monografijama preskaču navesti zgrade projektirane za “Dalmacem”. Općenito, prevladava nezainteresiranost arhitektonske struke koja se odnosi prema izgrađenom naslijeđu industrije cementa kao prema nečem što je izvan domene interesa. Upravo taj stav i jest glavni uzrok što se danas sanacijama tupinoloma, rekonstrukcijama i rušenjima te čak studijama prenamjene ostavštine cementne industrije bave druge struke, u pravilu na njezinu štetu.

Tvornica cementa i naselje u Majdanu

Godine 1905. ing. Emil Stock, jedan po pokretača tvornica cementa u Hvaru i Sv. Kaju, preusmjerava svoje poslovne ambicije na majdansko područje. Majdanska je tvornica podignuta 1908. godine kapitalom Anonimnoga društva za cement portland “Split”, čiji su suvlasnici Emil Stock, splitski poduzetnik Mate Vidović te u manjoj mjeri i drugi poduzetnici. Kapital od 2,5 milijuna kruna Stock pronalazi u tršćanskoj filijali Anglo-austrijske banke iz Beča. Sjedište društva bilo je registrirano u Splitu, a uprava društva se do 1927. godine nalazila u Trstu.

Tvornica jrazvoj majdanae smještena na predjelu zvanom Majdan, otprilike osamsto metara nizvodno od izvora Jadra. U blizini se nalaze antički salonitanski i Dioklecijanov vodovod, te još dva arheološka lokaliteta – ostatci ville rustice i starohrvatskoga groblja. Na brdu Rakete sjeveroistočno od budućeg tvorničkoga kruga nalazila se crkvica sv. Jurja. Južni je dio terena na kojem će biti izgrađena tvornica relativno ravan, a uzdiže se prema sjeveru i zapadu. Više područja uz rijeku je naplavno, pa tako i prostor buduće tvornice, što je vidljivo na izmjeri katastarskih općina Klis, Solin i Mravince. Zahtjevnu reljefnu konfiguraciju majdanske lokacije Stock će anulirati organizacijom tvorničkog sklopa.

Ovaj je prostor i prije osnivanja tvornice doživio nekoliko modernizacijskih zahvata. Splitska je općina na čelu s dr. Bajamontijem 1880. godine obnovila kaptažu na izvoru Jadra i Dioklecijanov vodovod. U blizini je prolazila željeznica Split – Sinj, sagrađena 1903. godine serpentinama savladavajući visinsku razliku do kliškog prijevoja. Gotovo istodobno s podizanjem tvornice na Jadru, poduzetnik Mate Vidović gradi hidrocentralu koja će u početku biti jedini izvor električne energije za tvornicu. Navedeni primjeri ocrtavaju obrise prostora koji je već otpočeo transformaciju iz poljoprivrednog u moderni krajolik. Naznake te transformacije 1908. godine zapečatiti će tvornica cementa, koja je i danas aktivna.

                                   dr.sc. Dujmo Žižić, dipl.ing.arh.

CEMENT INDUSTRY IN THE REGION OF SPLIT

Architecture, infrastructure and impact on the cultural landscape

According to the criteria of the affected area, height and size of buildings, distribution and number of employees, the cement industry is the most important one in Dalmatia. Its influence on space begins immediately and elementary – marl raw materials are irreversibly withdrawn from the landscape. The next level of impact is generated by processes in which cement is produced from raw materials, and shipped on the market. This is a technical heritage in its purest form – the factory furnaces and mills, power plants and ropeways. Factory assemblies of the cement industry moved the feasible boundaries in the industrial architecture of Central Dalmatia. Infrastructural and technical networking of the region was achieved by railway, electricity, water supply and ports. To meet the needs of professionals and workers involved, in various social situations differently, housing, health and cultural facilities were built. Ultimately, the long-term existence and a large number of employees caused the fact that the cement industry had an active role in the creation of social relations.

Despite the undoubtedly great influence on the central Dalmatian area, the cement industry is not recognized adequately. Its beginnings and development occurred regardless of the then accurate regional plans. Secession assemblies and post-war residential buildings are ignored in the expert literature. Architectural design office of the company “Dalmacijacement” is not given an adequate importance. Furthermore, construction companies mention built cement factories among its references only incidentally, and architectural design offices skip the state buildings designed for “Dalmacem” in monographs. In general, lack of interest prevails among the architectural professionals when it comes to the heritage of the cement industry – they consider it as something out of their interest. This attitude is a major cause of the fact that in today’s Croatia marlstone quarry rehabilitation, reconstruction and demolition, and even the studies of the reuse of the cement industry legacy, are in domain of other professions. Almost as a rule, that is a detriment to the industrial legacy.

Cement factory and settlement in Majdan

In 1905, engineer Emil Stock, one of the founders of cement plant in Hvar and Sv. Kajo, diverts his business ambitions on the area of Majdan in Solin. The cement factory in Solin was built in 1908 with the capital of an Anonymous society of portland cement “Split”, which was co-owned by Emil Stock, businessman Mate Vidovic from the City of Split, and to a lesser extent by other entrepreneurs. The capital of 2.5 million crowns Stock found in Trieste branch of the Anglo-Austrian Bank in Vienna. Company headquarter was registered in Split, and the management of the company was located in Trieste until 1927.

The factory was located in an area called Majdan, about 800 meters downstream from the spring of River Jadro. Nearby, the ancient Salona and Diocletian’s aqueduct are placed, as well as two archaeological sites – remains of a villa rustica and early Croatian cemetery. On the hill Rakete, northeast of the future factory assembly, the Church of St. George was settled. The southern part of the area on which the factory was to be built was relatively flat, and it rises to the north and west. Lots of areas along the river are floodplain, including the area of the future cement factory, which is visible on the survey of cadastral municipalities of Klis, Solin and Mravince. Challenging relief configuration was annulated by engineer Stock with organization of factory assembly.

This area of Majdan experienced several modernization interventions even before the foundation of the cement factory. The municipality of Split, headed by Dr. Bajamonti, renovated the capping of the River Jadro spring and Diocletian’s aqueduct in 1880. The railway connecting municipalities of Split and Sinj, built in 1903 with serpentines overcoming a hight difference to the Klis pass, passed nearby. Almost simultaneously with building the cement factory on the River Jadro, entrepreneur Mate Vidović was building a hydroelectric power plant, which was initially the only source of electricity for the cement factory. These examples illustrate the contours of space that has already begun the transformation from agricultural to a modern landscape. Indications of this transformation were sealed in 1908 with the cement factory, still active today.

 Dr.sc. Dujmo Žižić, M.Arch.

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